Oak Grove Animal Hospital

110 Robbins Road
Durham, NC 27703-3637

(919)598-0001

www.oakgrovevetnc.com

Preventative Care
 

Wellness Exams

Wellness exams are recommended as part of a regular preventative care regiment for your pet. 
During your visit we will:

  • Ask you about your pet's current lifestyle and about any changes in their diet and behavior.
  • Take your pet's temperature.
  • Examine their coat, eyes, ears and gums
  • Check respiration and heartbeat
  • Make sure all required vaccinations are up to date. 
We also encourage you to ask questions of us as well and express any concerns you may have about your pet. 

Vaccination programs

Puppies and kittens are born with a natural immunity to disease received from their mother. This immunity rapidly decreases so they should receive a series of vaccinations to protect them as they grow up. The interval between vaccinations varies from 2-4 weeks depending on the individual pet's risk and exposure, age, breed and previous vaccinations. 

Dogs: Recommended Vaccination Schedule
 

Vaccinations

 Primary Vaccination Puppy

 Primary Vaccination Adult

Booster Vaccination 

 DHPP

 8,12 and 16 wks

2 doses, 2-4 weeks apart 

 Annually, then every 3 years

 Leptospirosis*

 12 and 16 wks
(not given to puppies less than 12 wks old)

2 doses, 2-4 weeks apart 

Annually, some recommend booster at 6 month intervals for high risk dogs  

Bordetella* 

 1 dose at not less than 6 weeks old

1 dose 

 Annually or 1 week prior to exposure

Rabies 

 Administer first dose between 12 and 16 weeks

 1 dose

 The second Rabies vaccine is given 1 year after first dose then vaccinate every 3 years

Lyme  

2 doses, 2-4 weeks apart  

2 doses, 2-4 weeks apart  

Annually 

Canine Influenza Virus Vaccine

2 doses, 2-4 weeks apart (1st dose at not less than 6 weeks old) 

2 doses, 2-4 weeks apart  

Annually

 

*These vaccinations are optional depending on the lifestyle of your pet.

 Distemper is highly contagious, caused by a virus similar to the germ that causes measles in people. The virus attacks brain cells and cells lining the surfaces of the body, including the skin, breathing airway and mucus membranes. Symptoms are a fever, nasal discharge, dry cough, vomiting and diarrhea.

Hepatitis is a highly contagious viral disease found almost exclusively in wild animals and unvaccinated dogs. It is mainly found in puppies under 1 year old and affects the liver and kidneys. 

Adenovirus is another type of highly contagious virus causing upper respiratory infection.  The vaccine protects against adenovirus-1 which can cause hepatitis.

Parainfluenza is one of the main viruses which causes kennel cough. Vaccination does not stop this infection but will decrease the severity of the symptoms (a dry cough). Parainfluenza is incorporated into the DHPP combination vaccine and a nasal vaccine is also available combined with the Bordetella intranasal vaccination.

Parvovirus is a highly contagious virus which attacks cells lining the gastrointestinal tract. The disease is more commonly found in puppies and is transmitted from infected feces. Symptoms include depression, vomiting and diarrhea; dehydration develops rapidly. Parvovirus is recommended and is incorporated in the DHPP combination injection and the 3 year distemper vaccine.
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 Leptospira

Leptospira is a bacteria found in wild and domestic animals.  It is transmitted through a break in the skin or when a dog drinks water contaminated by infected urine. Leptospira primarily affect the kidneys and liver, symptoms include fever, loss of appetite, vomiting, lethargy and diarrhea. It is an optional vaccine recommended annually, for dogs who spend a lot of time around water. Leptospira is also a zoonotic disease which means it can be passed to humans.
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 Bordetella

Bordetella is an optional vaccine given to control upper respiratory infections commonly known as kennel cough. This vaccine is recommended for any dog which goes to boarding kennels, groomers or dog parks. The bordetella vaccine is available as an injection or nasal spray. It is more commonly given as a nasal spray because this gives the quickest immunity. Annual boosters are recommended to ensure effective immunity.
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Lyme

Lyme is an optional vaccine given to protect from Lyme Borreliosis disease which is an infection your dog can get if bitten by a deer tick carrying the Lyme bacteria.  If left untreated, Lyme disease can cause a number of symptoms that can become serious, including fever, joint swelling, lameness, kidney failure and heart problems.  Annual boosters are recommended to ensure effective immunity.
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 Rabies

The rabies virus is transmitted through the saliva from a bite by an infected animal. It affects the brain function, changing personality and at latter stages can cause loss of body movement. Rabies is a fatal disease and death normally occurs from respiratory failure. The vaccine has proven to be very successful in fighting this disease and all domestic cats and dogs are required to be vaccinated by law. The first vaccination should be given at 12 weeks, with the first booster given one year later. Any subsequent boosters should be given annually or every three years depending on the vaccine given. 
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Cats: Recommended Vaccination Schedule

Vaccinations

Primary Vaccination 
Cats < 12 weeks

Primary Vaccination Cats > 12 weeks

Booster Vaccination

FVRCP

If > 6 wks vaccinate every 3-4 weeks

2 doses, 3-4 weeks apart

Annually, then every 2 years

Rabies

Not old enough

1 dose

The second Rabies vaccine is given 1 year after first dose, then vaccinate every 3 years

FeLV*

If high risk, start at 8 wks, 2 doses 3-4 wks apart

2 doses 3-4 weeks apart

Annually for young at risk cats

 

FVRP

The FVRCP vaccination is recommended to protect cats from upper respiratory diseases and panleukopenia. Upper respiratory diseases are easily transmitted through the air when an infected cat sneezes. Cats are required to have this vaccination prior to boarding.

FVR (Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis) is a severe upper respiratory infection caused by a feline type 11, herpes-virus.  It is most severe in young kittens and older cats, and is one of the most serious upper respiratory diseases seen in the feline species.  The virus is airborne and is very contagoius in susceptible animals.

C (Calicivirus) There are several strains of Calicivirus that affect cats.  They can cause a range of diseases, from a mild almost asymptomatic infection, to life threatening pneumonia.  Most cases show only evidence of problems in the mouth, nasal passenges and the conjunctiva (mucus membranes) of the eyes.

P (Panleukopenia) also known as feline distemper and infectious feline enteritis is a highly contagious disease characterized by a short course and high mortality rate.  The disease is caused by a parvovirus similar to the parvovirus seen in dogs.  It is very resistant and may remain infectious in the environment for up to one year.
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 FeLV Feline Leukemia 

FeLV is a retrovirus that causes many fatal diseases in cats in addition to leukemia, including anemia and cancer of the lymph nodes. FeLV is spread by cat-to-cat contact, commonly through cat fights and so is more commonly found in cats which spend time outside. There is no cure so high risk young cats should be vaccinated.
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FIV - Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

FIV is a virus which suppresses the cats immune system, also known as feline aids. This immunosupression weakens the body's defenses and leaves an animal vulnerable to infection from other diseases. It is moderately contagious and often transmitted from the bite of an infected animal, hence it is also more commonly found in cats which spend most of the time outside. A FeLV / FIV Combo test is recommended for all cats with unknown status and required prior to surgery or before the first feline leukemia vaccine. 
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 Rabies

The rabies virus is transmitted through the saliva from a bite by an infected animal. It affects the brain function, changing personality and at latter stages can cause loss of body movement. Rabies is a fatal disease and death normally occurs from respiratory failure. The vaccine has proven to be very successful in fighting this disease and all domestic cats and dogs are required to be vaccinated by law. The first vaccination should be given at 12 weeks, with the first booster given one year later. Any subsequent boosters should be given annually or every three years depending on the vaccine given. 
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Additional Preventative Care for Cats and Dogs

Deworming

Most puppies and kittens will be infected with roundworms and hookworms. In order to kill these parasites they should be dewormed at 2, 4, 6 & 8 weeks of age. biannual intestinal parasite exams (fecal) are recommended for adults.

Heartworm

Heartworm disease is transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito; in endemic areas virtually all unprotected dogs and about 10-15% of cats will become infected. As the name suggests this disease describes a health problem where worms live in the heart.  In dogs early symptoms include lack of energy and a soft, deep cough. As the disease progresses there is weight loss, rapid breathing and severe coughing, followed by protruding ribs and a bulging chest. In severe cases this can lead to collapse and death. Cats often show no signs of the disease except acute death.

Heartworm prevention should be started when your pet is about 8 weeks old and kept on a regular preventative plan year round. There are a number of different pills on the market such as Heartguard, Revolution, Trifexis and Sentinel; which are available from our pharmacy. An annual heartworm test is required to ensure that the dog is heartworm negative prior to administering the prevention.  For more information you can go to the following link: http://heartgard.us.merial.com/ 

Flea and Tick Prevention

At Oak Grove Animal Hospital we recommend using a flea and tick preventative all year round.  Fleas do not have wings but jump from one infected animal to another.  Ticks are found on wildlife and untreated pets, they lie in long grass to wait for a potential host to pass by and then jump on.  Adult fleas and ticks feed on the blood of its host by piercing the skin with razor sharp teeth and are the primary cause of scratching and skin irritation in our pets.  Fleas prefer to feed on cats and dogs but will also feed on humans and cause severe irritation.  Ticks will feed on humans as well as animals and carry fatal diseases so it is important to check our pets for ticks when coming in the house after spending time outside and use an approved preventative such as Frontline. Please click on the following link for additional information on the safe use of flea and tick products in pets: http://www.avma.org/animal_health/flea-tick-products.asp